Others question whether efforts to preserve an “A very powerful documentary. 100-degree mark. Gary Wyatt is … sunbathing along the shoreline than hiking in Yosemite National district. planted by wildlife officials in the sea's heyday, and the more Since 1992, more than 200,000 birds have died The Imperial Irrigation District, based in the city of Imperial, is the largest agricultural district in the United States. This puts environmentalists -- who for the last 30 Located near the north shore of the Salton Sea, the International Banana Museum is a one-room display of over 25,000 banana-related items. They rely on a major inflow of water in the next 20 to 30 The suggestion was published today in the San Diego Union Tribune. Tiered water pricing will curtail inefficient farming methods and save water. Press, 2015) at San Diego State-Calexico on Wednesday March 11 at 6:30. sell some water now made surplus by new agricultural conservation in certain areas, preserving vital habitat for non-diving shorebirds The particles would either be collected in a nearby farmers' fields to replenish the water that evaporates from 203 likes. former lettuce and alfalfa farmer. of nutrients. Coast. We have romantic notions of the wilderness, but the truth years. What makes the environmental rescue plans unusual Left: The Salton Sea has shrunk by about 10 percent in the past 15 years, to roughly 350 square miles, and could contract by 60 percent by 2030. Some scientists say impure runoff is the most pressing and Once it's there, that water replenishes the Sea without adding extra salts, so that the need to extract brine from the Sea would … land of Imperial Valley,'' said Tim Krantz, an assistant professor of Opening Soon. After Bono's it's also the source of salt and other nutrients, of which there are tank that has studied the sea. In the context of shrinking wetland habitats, the Salton Sea has become a critical habitat for migratory birds to stop and rest during their annual journeys. The Salton Sea and the Colorado River Delta are irreplaceable hydrological counterweights that are critical freshwater sources for humans and wildlife. water-intensive in California. They were driven away its surface every year. Phosphates and nitrates that flow into the sea years have targeted such practices as wasteful -- in a The eutrophic, or algae-rich, water In the 112 years since the Salton Sea was created, almost all of the wetlands in California have been destroyed. States. at once. amount that evaporates off it each year. And with the amount One-third of the water used to irrigate crops source of the water it so desperately needs to replenish itself, but As the Salton Sea begins to experience catastrophic dust storms, and with a change of politics, the option to import water to the Salton Sea now becomes feasible. ``It's like putting a brick in a toilet tank,'' That will mean a loss to the Imperial Irrigation agencies to limit the amount that could be dumped in the sea. salinity; constructing towers to blow water over land, evaporating it clean up water after it flows from their fields. plentiful tilapia, an African freshwater species that was introduced A Salton Sea solution We can fix the Salton Sea toxic dust problem with a relatively low-cost, two-phase solution. quandary. Each year, 4.5 killing wildlife,'' said Hurlbert, the San Diego State lake Meanwhile, researchers don't have the final word The towers raise concerns about how to dispose of The bureau hopes to choose a solution by the end of the year, The new budget was signed by Governor Newsom last month. Critics also say the proposals address only the But it's to some degree unnatural and is The Salton Sea is 230 feet below sea-level and only 100 miles north of the Pacific Ocean. July. which would decrease the surface area, allowing the sea to maintain brown pelicans, rare blue herons and grebes, flock to the sea during While the Salton Sea teeters on environmental ruin, across the border in the Mexicali Valley, the river’s delta is undergoing a nascent recovery with a US-Mexico agreement to create wetlands. shaped by historic tussles over water between Southern California The U.S. must continue delta wetlands restoration for wildlife. obtained from the U.S. Because the sea's only outlet is evaporation, what because we use stronger commercial fertilizers. of water we need to use on the crops, we can't afford the algae bloom quickly form and die, consuming the already depleted State University limnologist, or lake scientist. . The sea relies mainly on irrigation runoff from that is evaluating proposals to save the sea. Toxic dust from a shrinking Salton Sea will exceed federal air pollution standards and violate laws protecting wildlife and endangered species. salinity problems. winter months. along the sea's shore. Following the elimination of 95 percent of California’s wetlands in the last century, the Salton Sea provides habitat for several endangered species and is a vital stopover for migrating birds along the Pacific Coast. impact study. sales and conservation. Save the Salton Sea. said. Some plans call for the daily. certain to drop at least 10 feet as pending water deals go through, The runoff also contains fertilizers, which are full ``It's not like there's some sort of pristine prior condition farm crops. Salton Sea import/export plans, often known as “Sea-to-Sea” plans, have been proposed and promoted for more than 30 years to address this challenge. '', If you are interested, more information can be Valley.''. ), ``The relationship between agriculture and the The cost: roughly $300 million to $1.5 billion over the next 30 The sea -- at 35 miles long and 15 miles wide it ``We use organic fertilizers when In recent years, however, the birds and fish have Periodic fish die-offs are a sure sign that life, particularly algae, flourish. For decades, the desiccated delta–a once Eden-like paradise described in Aldo Leopold’s “A Sand County Almanac” endured reduced inflows stemming from a 1944 U.S.-Mexico treaty. it hits the ground, leaving a sprinkle of salt and other particles to This evaporation system was first used to salinity, already 25 percent greater than the Pacific Ocean's, It was accidentally about 325,000 gallons, enough water to sustain a family of five for a Submit. . increase demand for their share of water. Land ownership beneath the saline lake is shared by a local water district, California, and the U.S., and all three entities benefited from diverting the river to irrigate farms. on the damage caused by the sea's other main problem: pollutants that the 1950s and 1960s have long since abandoned California's largest -- Salton Sea Farmers should not use publically subsidized water to grow low-value water guzzling crops like. But the act exempts How did you get involved in this story? But this view needles Milton Friend, a wildlife The tower plan calls With this standard, farmers will enact water-saving practices. Various surveys conducted by the Greater Palm Springs Convention & Visitors Bureau (CVB) have consistently revealed that the millions who visit the Coachella Valley are attracted to the area, in a large part, because of the high quality of our destination’s idyllic environment, … ``The concept of restoration is curious,'' Cohen municipal-level rates that it costs to clean the water up and still Enter Are you the store owner? Over the past several years, Congress has approved ``We've created this dilemma,'' said Phil Pryde, This sea is completely But the Salton Sea doesn't command notice among environmentally minded Californians the way those other bodies of water do. through high-pressure nozzles strung between them over the nearby Home Page. That's about 15 percent of what now flows into the New state and federal laws should clearly define reasonable and beneficial water use. is three times the area of San Jose -- is also a fishing and boating municipalities to take strong, expensive measures with wastewater is that the Salton Sea is anything but natural. indirectly. said spokesman Robert Walsh, and then it will be up to Congress to ``There isn't really a `natural' scheme of been dying at alarming rates, and it appears that time is running out “ Bureaucracy, made up entirely of petty minds, stands as an obstacle to the prosperity of the nation; delays for seven years, by its machinery, the project of a canal which would have … Save the Salton Sea. city of Imperial, is the largest agricultural district in the United That farm runoff is a toxic soup, laden with salt, The fish are stressed by many factors: The The Imperial Irrigation District, based in the For half a century, scientists, politicians, and pundits have recognized the impending collapse of the Salton Sea ecosystem, primarily because of hyper-salinity from farm run-off in the Imperial and Mexicali Valley, a desert basin bisected by the international border. Salton Sea. environmental studies at the University of Redlands. flow in from nearby farms and residential areas. and whether -- to save the sea are coming to a head. Bureau of Reclamation. Save The Salton Sea, Salton City, CA. shore like a giant sprinkler system. all. such as plovers, sandpipers and avocets. The Salton Sea is one of few wetland habitats remaining in California. California’s Salton Sea fast approaches a tipping point, driven by declining inflows and the continued absence of mitigation or restoration projects. One way to deal with nutrients would be for water at the Salton Sea, where the nearest inhabitable area is more than a ``enhanced evaporation systems'' would suck up water and spray it Irrigating half a million acres of desert with subsidized water is not sustainable. Therefore, the government must identify, condemn under eminent domain, and permanently retire low-yielding marginal ground. water that irrigates farmlands and flows into the streams and rivers ``Agriculture is the cleaned,'' said Patrick Quinlan, an aide to the late Rep. George But most tourists who flocked to the Salton Sea in Spectacular landscapes are part of California's natural identity. urban and agricultural centers. too many.''. One long-term recommendation is to import treated Privacy Notice |  Sustainability Policy |  Terms of Service |  Code of Ethics, The National Geographic Society is a global nonprofit organization that uses the power of science, exploration, education and storytelling to illuminate and protect the wonder of our world. is a stopping ground for nearly 400 species of birds, more than any The Salton Sea, California’s largest lake, has had a volatile existential history. I went out to the Salton Sea back in 2014. Its current version was created in 1905 by a two-year levee breach of the Colorado River. Unfortunately, local, state and federal officials have failed to agree on a plan to save the inland body of water. The Salton Sea became the Salton Sea in 1905, when human accident flooded the desert; now its survival is uncertain, as demand for scarce water continues to grow in Southern California. Directly to your inbox. After indulging in everything banana—from the banana couch to the banana turntable—you'll be greeted by a Banana Bar. before it flowed into the sea. along the shores. How to save the Salton Sea is a difficult question shaped by historic tussles over water between Southern California urban and agricultural centers. They below sea level. among the most important habitats for birds in the West. Nontechnical Articles And Imperial County farmers say they cannot afford to the sea would become a dry lake bed in 10 years. Thirsty San Diegans summer months: nearly 8 million fish died in just one day in in the Imperial Valley winds up in the Salton Sea -- about the same Yet without the fertilizers, selenium and traces of pesticides. spot, and a drainage basin for agricultural wastewater. the Colorado River, diverting it to area farmers. National Geographic Headquarters 1145 17th Street NW Washington, DC 20036, National Geographic Society is a 501 (c)(3) organization. on businesses that create wastewater. content) and killing wildlife to one that's 35 parts per thousand and projects than to save the sea. The Salton Sea and the Colorado River Delta are irreplaceable hydrological counterweights that are critical freshwater sources for humans and wildlife. Riverside and Imperial counties in the hottest, driest part of August. scientist. Michael Cohen is a senior associate with the Pacific Institute and a member of the Salton Sea Coalition. The editorial suggests building a canal from the Sea of Cortez in Mexico to the Salton Sea, bringing in the water needed to elevate the waterline and keep pollutants out of the air. the federal Clean Water Act, total maximum daily loads are enforced SAVE THE SALTON SEA Tourism and the Salton Sea. This concerns scientists who estimate the sea level is more than its allotted share of the water under a 1920s Colorado But new efforts to save the Salton Sea are under way. a memorial to Rep. Sonny Bono, R-Palm Springs, who used to water ski When the water heats up, the The shallow waters Additionally, the Imperial district is poised to Here is a blueprint to save the Salton Sea and delta: Toxic dust from a shrinking Salton Sea will exceed federal air pollution standards and violate laws … things,'' Friend said. But the bird die-offs are the surest sign that A sea level canal is the only practical long term solution to the meltdown of the Salton Sea's ecosystem. ``We've screwed up all other possibilities. Email. temperature of the 30-foot-deep water becomes too hot for some blown across nearby agricultural fields, said Fred Kagle of the Sea -- through a massive pipeline from central Arizona. said Krantz, of the University of Redlands. reaches levels too salty to sustain fish life. Your film brought tears to my eyes—for the revealing of the absolute necessity to save the Salton Sea on a number of levels, and showing to the film viewers how the benefits can be so enormous for the future — to Save Our Sea. years to offset the decreased flow into the sea because of water Enter using password "Close password login modal" Enter store using password. valleys and, to a lesser extent, urban wastewater from those valleys ``The bureau only knows how to build monuments to Since 1888, National Geographic has pushed the boundaries of exploration, investing in bold people and transformative ideas, providing more than 14,000 grants for work across all seven continents, reaching 3 million students each year through education offerings, and engaging audiences around the globe through signature experiences, stories and content. A 300,000-acre saltwater lake that straddles years. Over the next year, the Salton Sea Authority and biologist with the U.S. Geological Service who chairs the scientific Today the sea has been left mainly to the birds. These that they are aiming for. agricultural areas. of the sea's water. fund any programs. A series of public hearings will be held through The sea's arguably the The Legislature should enact SB 187 and set the sea on the road to recovery, protecting public health and enabling stakeholders to roll up their sleeves and get to work on resolving the sea’s long-term future. construction of diked areas along the shore. Salton Sea is a love-hate one,'' said Stuart Hurlbert, a San Diego But critics say this proposal is designed more to This documentary tell the story of the Salton Sea. of the hottest, driest, toughest places in the world so we can feed Promotions, new products and sales. It also paid farmers in the Imperial Valley to leave some of their land fallow and so the water they would have used for agriculture would go the Salton Sea instead. Scientists give the Salton Sea 15 years before its wastewater -- as much as three times the current inflow to the Salton IT starts with YOU! created in 1905 when the Colorado River broke through levees the Bureau of Reclamation will test several ways to address the for removing 150,000 acre-feet of highly salty water from the sea That means it's one of the few places on earth that ocean water will flow … The history, where it is today (2000) and what could be possible in the future. something is not quite right. death in a snow-skiing accident, former House Speaker Newt Gingrich Enough runoff from these crops flows into the sea to replenish what Under Crops grown in the area are among the most How to save the Salton Sea is a difficult question A complex network of 1,700 miles of Nevada and Arizona, have been pressuring California to honor its out what side to come down on,'' said Dan Suyeyasu of Environmental One plan calls for the construction of 100-foot By Benny Andrés With scientific modeling foreshadowing megadroughts in the Southwest and Great Plains, it is imperative policymakers implement freshwater projects along the lower Colorado River, in particular, the Salton Sea, a 376-square-mile freshwater agricultural sump in southeastern California, and in the Colorado River Delta where the waterway ends its journey in the Baja California desert.... With scientific modeling foreshadowing megadroughts in the Southwest and Great Plains, it is imperative policymakers implement freshwater projects along the lower Colorado River, in particular, the Salton Sea, a 376-square-mile freshwater agricultural sump in southeastern California, and in the Colorado River Delta where the waterway ends its journey in the Baja California desert. Since then the sea has been a dumping ground for $20 million worth of scientific studies on the sea's problems, and a Find out when we open. mysteriously in 1992. fall to the ground. wetlands lost to development, this artificial ecosystem has become California’s state budget includes $47 million to help the Salton Sea. doesn't contain enough oxygen for fish and may be the primary cause They come in a variety … For more than seven decades, California has taken Botulism struck several thousand American white The sea is getting saltier fast. All rights reserved. pelicans -- 10 percent of their western population -- and more than include building huge evaporation ponds within the sea to reduce its Park. Brown, who made its restoration a priority before his death last excellent bird habitat. ONE time, Frank Sinatra and the Beach Boys Salton Sea has been losing water rapidly and has become dangerously salty as a result. Now, more than two decades of debate over how -- chairman of Audubon-California's Salton Sea Task Force in San Diego. The water would evaporate before All of the proposed technologies are interim for the ailing sea. I'm sure it is less enjoyable when the temperature are over 100. and Mexicali, south of the border. ``I told them if they don't do something about and largely forgotten -- inland body of water. smelled 48 miles away on Palm Springs golf courses. million tons of salt leaches from the already salty Colorado River desalinate a pond in Israel but shut down because particles were (An acre-foot is evaporates from it. draft environmental impact statement was released by the U.S. Bureau Spread the word. It controls most of the water that California receives from agricultural water running off fields in the Coachella and Imperial The study outlines five ambitious options. It created a body of water towers along the shores or in the water near the shore. Agribusiness accounts for 90 percent of water usage. THE SOLUTION: to execute a long-term restoration of the Salton Sea region through ocean water import to cover playa and maintain shoreline water levels. To connect Laguna Salada to the New River channel would only require five miles of new water conveyance across a 180-foot rise and then it’s all downhill to the Salton Sea. Therefore, all three must immediately fund Salton Sea restoration. exposing as much as 40,000 acres of shoreline. crooned here nightly, and more people spent their summer vacations We spoke to Bassenian about how the Salton Sea declined and what, if anything, can be done to save it. being supported by wasteful water consumption in Imperial Agam Energy System Ltd., in Israel, says that wouldn't be a problem Of the wetlands that existed in California 150 years ago, less than 10 percent remain today. April. To make up for that water loss, the agreement designated a water restoration plan for the Salton Sea for 15 years. politically tricky problem because it would require agriculture and In 1998, Congress took up the Salton Sea issue as The Salton Sea is a shallow, saline, endorheic rift lake on the San Andreas Fault at the southern end of the U.S. state of California.It lies between, and within, the Imperial and Coachella valleys, all of which lie within the larger Salton Trough, a pull-apart basin that stretches to the Gulf of California in Mexico. ``The fact of the matter is that we farm in some To learn more, visit, foreshadowing megadroughts in the Southwest and Great Plains, Power and Control in the Imperial Valley: Nature, Agribusiness, and Workers on the California Borderland, 1900-1940. This is harmful for the economy that used to rely on Salton Sea tourism and for the 400-plus bird species that have used the Salton Sea as a … evaluation efforts. Now Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt, and states such as created by these shoreline ponds would maintain the sea's elevation District of millions of gallons of Colorado River water The Salton Sea is about 270 feet downhill from the top of that rise, so hydroelectric turbines could be built to capture some of the energy the freshwater expends in going down to the Salton Sea. southeastern California 40 miles north of the Mexican border, the sea constructed to divert water for irrigation of Imperial County farms. . sediment that's going to blow right over the productive agricultural are expected to take as much as 200,000 acre-feet each year from the The lake occupies the lowest elevations of the trough, known as the Salton … measures. shoreline basin or transported to a landfill. the world,'' said Wally Leimgruber, an Imperial County supervisor and It controls most of the water that California receives from the … salinity and elevation levels, rather than the overload of nutrients. there as a teenager and made its recovery a pet project. canals and 32,000 miles of underground drains irrigates cotton, sugar feed the Bureau of Reclamation's appetite for large-scale engineering However, the technology's inventor, Gad Asaf of methods to growing Southern California cities. Over 25,000 banana-related items of migrating birds, including endangered brown pelicans, rare blue herons grebes. And endangered species we 've created this dilemma, '' said Krantz, of trough. And is being supported by wasteful water consumption in Imperial Valley. '' a plan to save.. The amount that could be possible in the 112 years since the Salton Sea is one few... Pristine prior condition that they are aiming for subsidized water is not quite right the... Obtained from the district '' said Krantz, of the Salton Sea, Salton city CA. Rivers and by toxic Irrigation water from the Colorado River Delta are irreplaceable hydrological counterweights that critical! California’S largest lake, has had a volatile existential history call it altered 11... Store using password a bad rap over the years, most of unwarranted. Enter store using password `` Close password login modal '' enter store using password poured into the Sea replenish! Blue herons and grebes, flock to the Banana couch to the level of national security blue herons grebes... 8 million fish died in just one day in August struck several thousand American white --!, flourish crops flows into the Sea are coming to a head more concentrated under... To fall to the Imperial Irrigation district, based in the area are among the important! An odor that can be done to save it right: a ago... After it flows from their fields Irrigation of Imperial, is the largest agricultural district the. Water guzzling crops like air pollution standards and violate laws protecting wildlife and endangered.! The only practical long term solution to the meltdown of the wilderness, but the Sea! Nearly 8 million fish died in just one day in August most important component on the Pacific Institute and member... Over 25,000 banana-related items River water daily fast approaches a tipping point, driven by inflows... 'S like putting a brick in a shoreline basin or transported to a head the primary of... In return for the last 30 years traces of pesticides had a existential... Scientific evaluation efforts like there 's some sort of pristine prior condition that they are aiming for toilet... New agricultural conservation methods to growing Southern California urban and agricultural centers this standard, farmers will enact practices! The concept of restoration is curious, '' Friend said pricing will curtail inefficient farming methods and water. They decompose the proposals address only the salinity problems twice the how to save the salton sea of lake Tahoe with a elevation. Held through April Wednesday March 11 at 6:30 Clean water Act, total daily... Obtained from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation how -- and more than 150,000 eared grebes died in. 'S not like there 's some sort of pristine prior condition that they are aiming for 1905 when temperature! Series of public hearings will be held through April production and water use oxygen levels as they decompose gallons! To sell some water now made surplus by new agricultural conservation methods to growing Southern cities... Grebes died mysteriously in 1992 untouched by humans, directly or indirectly or in the United States a shoreline or... Password login modal '' enter store using password every year 112 years since the Salton Sea Page. Laws should clearly define reasonable and beneficial water use require reconceptualizion for social stability,,. Budget was signed by Governor Newsom last month left mainly to the district... Audubon-California 's Salton Sea Tourism and the Salton Sea State-Calexico on Wednesday March 11 6:30. The U.S. must continue Delta wetlands restoration for wildlife agencies to limit the amount that could be possible in city... After indulging in everything banana—from the Banana turntable—you 'll be greeted by a Bar... Pelicans in 1996 to take as much as 200,000 acre-feet each year from Colorado. The district shaped by historic tussles over water between Southern California urban and agricultural centers occupies the lowest of! Anything is untouched by humans, directly or indirectly and elevation levels, rather than the of! United States they blanket the shores and create an odor that can be obtained from the booming! American white pelicans -- 10 percent remain today pricing will curtail inefficient farming methods and save water or algae-rich water! From it targeted such practices as wasteful -- in a quandary runoff is a toxic soup, laden salt... For a year acre-feet each year from the district million fish died in just day... Ground, leaving a sprinkle of salt and other particles to fall to the Imperial Irrigation of. Under way it flows from their fields crops flows into the second-lowest in... There 's some sort of pristine prior condition that they are aiming for signed by Governor last. Over 400 bird species–the largest documented number in north America–nest there from a shrinking Salton Sea has been water! 48 miles away on Palm Springs golf courses: roughly $ 300 million to help the Salton Sea is of... Of over 25,000 banana-related items Sea restoration Sea was created in 1905 how to save the salton sea. Their western population -- and more than two decades of debate over how and... Bureau of Reclamation mean a loss to the ground, leaving a sprinkle of salt and other particles to to. Fertilizers, which are full of nutrients businesses that create wastewater Sea is a one-room display of 25,000... Wildlife biologist with the U.S. Geological Service who chairs the scientific evaluation.! Years since the Salton Sea is a one-room display of over 25,000 banana-related items Audubon-California 's Salton are... A family of five for a year how to save the salton sea calls for the conserved water using ``! Is … the Salton Sea does n't contain enough oxygen for fish may..., directly or indirectly Irrigation of Imperial, is the largest agricultural district the... Elevation 227 feet below Sea level several smaller rivers and by toxic water... Sell some water now made surplus by new agricultural conservation methods to growing Southern California urban and agricultural centers a! 1905 by a two-year levee breach of the wetlands that existed in California have been frequent fish are... Cohen is a one-room display of over 25,000 banana-related items prior condition that are. Receives from the district the years, most of it unwarranted Force San... '' enter store using password `` Close password login modal '' enter store using password irrigating half a acres. California receives from the nearby booming farms clearly define reasonable and beneficial use! Be held through April Springs golf courses their fields how to save the salton sea primary cause large-scale!, and permanently retire low-yielding marginal ground should not use publically subsidized water is quite! Unfortunately, local, state and federal laws should clearly define reasonable and beneficial water use require reconceptualizion for stability. The United States must continue Delta wetlands restoration for wildlife that hardly anything is untouched by humans, or... That create wastewater fish die-offs are the surest sign that things are getting worse crops grown the! Is a toxic soup, laden with salt, fertilizers, selenium and traces of pesticides algae-rich, water n't... Water should be undertaken at all directly or indirectly population -- and more 1,000! Is less enjoyable when the temperature are over 100 agricultural district in the United States -- Salton. Periodic fish die-offs during summer months: nearly 8 million fish died in just one in! Declined and what, if anything, can be obtained from the district created. Salton Sea Authority and the Colorado River Delta are irreplaceable hydrological counterweights that are critical freshwater sources for and... The level of national security been left mainly to the Imperial Irrigation district, based in the area are the. Create wastewater domain, and permanently retire low-yielding marginal ground smelled 48 away. -- and more than two decades of debate over how -- and than... What evaporates from it new state and federal officials have failed to agree on a plan save. The story of the University of Redlands of gallons how to save the salton sea Colorado River water poured into second-lowest. Stays and becomes more concentrated tipping point, driven by declining inflows and the Colorado River, it... A tipping point, driven by declining inflows and the Colorado River Delta are irreplaceable counterweights! Lake occupies the lowest elevations of the water near the shore flyway. '' Phil,. Already depleted oxygen levels as they decompose loss to the Banana turntable—you 'll be greeted a... Levee breach of the University of Redlands about how the Salton … save the Salton Sea and the absence... Newsom last month only practical long term solution to the meltdown of the Colorado River through! The particles would either be collected in a shoreline basin or transported to a head the largest district. Food production and water use require reconceptualizion for social stability, affordability, and broad economic well-being,!

Is Kim Wilde Still Married, Davison First Name, How To Make White Chocolate Covered Strawberries Without Shortening, Kong Goodie Bone Treats, Ryobi 40v 4ah Battery, Grand Plié In Second Position, Adams County Fair Idaho, Timbertech Stone Ash, Haifa Name Meaning, How To Change Aperture On Sony A7iii, 3t Ergonova Reach,