The Orchidaceae has beerl also believed to arise from the Musaceae or its ancestor. Louis Claude Richard provided us in 1817 with the descriptive terminology of the orchids. Dioscorides Press, Portland, OR. Translation table 11 (Bacterial, Archaeal and Plant Plastid). Most have hard pollinia, i.e. [citation needed] Olof Swartz recognized 25 genera in 1800. 2015. Phylogeny and classification of the orchid family. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Soceity 177: 151-174. Oxford Univ. But, from a molecular point of view, it is rather a sister to subfamily Epidendroideae + subfamily Orchidoideae. NCBI Taxonomy: a comprehensive update on curation, resources and tools. Dressler, Robert L. 1993. Taxonomy of the Orchids. A revision of the genus Oreorchis (Orchidaceae) - Volume 54 Issue 3 - N. Pearce, P. Cribb Skip to main content We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. In Dixon, K. W., Pell, S. P., Barrett, R. L., & Cribb, P. J. The entire wiki with photo and video galleries for each article DNA data and Orchidaceae systematics: A new phylogenetic classification. Oxford Univ. (1999). Orchidaceae may be the largest family of flowering plants on earth: over 30,000 known species (Benzing 1986) with 300 to 500 new types described annually (J. Beckner and W. Higgins, pers. Press. Of these 27,135 are accepted species names. In the latter, almost all of the problematic placements recognized in the previous classification 11 years ago have now been resolved. Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. Genera Orchidacearum 5 - Epidendroideae (Part 2). (2006). The taxonomy of the orchid family has evolved slowly during the last 150 years, starting with Carolus Linnaeus who in 1753 recognized eight genera. The main stem grows in a single direction. 2003. The orchid family (Orchidaceae) is the second largest family of flowering plants, with about 880 genera and some 26,000 species distributed nearly worldwide. All rights reserved. Frete GRÁTIS em milhares de produtos com o Amazon Prime. Genera Orchidacearum 2 - Orchidoideae (Part 1). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification of the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Oxford Univ. Genera Orchidacearum 3 - Orchidoideae (Part 2), Vanilloideae. Bot Stud (2017) 58:8 DOI 10.1186/s40529-017-0164-z ORIGINAL ARTICLE Open Access Taxonomy of Cyrtochilum‑alliance (Orchidaceae) in the light of molecular and morphological data Dariusz L. Szlachetko1, Marta Kolanowska1,2* , Aleksandra Naczk3, Marcin Górniak3, Magdalena Dudek1, Piotr Rutkowski1 and Guy Chiron4 Abstract Background: The generic separateness and … Specialised clade within a more broadly defined Epidendroideae Formerly called Vandoideae, this is the second largest subfamily with over 300 genera in more than 5,000 species. Taxon 56 (1): 7-12. This subfamily is a branch at the basal dichotomy of the monandrous orchids. Szlachetko et al. Species of this polyphyletic tribe occur in all continents (except Antarctica), but mainly in North and South America and tropical Asia. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. All show a unique development of the single anther: it is incumbent forming a right angle with the column axis or pointed backward in many genera. Louis Claude Richard provided us in 1817 with the descriptive terminology of the orchids. 2010. ; Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., & Chase, M.A. 2020: baaa062. The former subfamily Spiranthoideae is now embedded in the clade Orchidoideae as the tribe Cranichideae (Dressler, 1993). Online at Flora of China: www.efloras.org, Chase MW, Cameron KM, Freudenstein JF, Pridgeon AM, Salazar G, van den Berg C, & Schuiteman A. Press. comm.). 2017 Dec;58(1):8. doi: 10.1186/s40529-017-0164-z. Encontre diversos livros … Bot. Over the years several smaller taxa were segregated from this taxon, but their separateness was recently questioned based on 39, 75231 Paris cedex 05, France. Ornithidium s.l. A summary cladogram of orchid relationships based on published DNA studies is given. This classification, published in the book The Orchids: Natural History and Classification, is widely accepted by botanists and growers. The next important step was taken by George Bentham in 1881 with a new classification, recognizing subtribes for the first time. Press. He is generally recognized as the father of orchid taxonomy. The taxonomic position of this genus has been unclear thus far. This is the largest subfamily, comprising more than 10,000 species in about 90 to 100 genera. Genera Orchidacearum 1 - Apostasioideae and Cypripedioideae. The APG III system incorporates molecular data and phylogenetic methods and represents the most up-to-date classification of flowering plants. relevant scientific literature for the most reliable information. De Jussieu recognized the Orchidaceae as a separate family in 1789. Reassessing the temporal evolution of orchids with new fossils and a Bayesian relaxed clock, with implications for the diversification of the rare South American genus Hoffmannseggella (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae). 68-89. Many of the species develop pseudobulbs (i.e. Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.A. The orchid family (Orchidaceae) is subdivided in several subfamilies, and then in tribes, subtribes, alliances and then genera. Olof Swartz recognized 25 genera in 1800. De Jussieu recognized the Orchidaceae as a separate family in 1789. An updated classification of Orchidaceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161(2): 105-121. Most are tropical epiphytes (usually with pseudobulbs), but some are terrestrials and even a few myco-heterotrophs. graminoid Dendrobium (Orchidaceae) with the description of two new species Marc PIGNAL 1,* & Jérôme MUNZINGER 2 1 MNHN Paris, Département Systématique et Evolution, UMR 7205 MNHN/CNRS Origine Structure et Evolution de la Biodiversité, 16 Rue Buffon, C.P. Dressler, Robert L. 1981. 95(1): 191-199. a mass of waxy pollen or of coherent pollen grains; pollinia with caudicle and viscidium or without; stigma entire or 3-lobed; rostellum present; 1-locular ovary; leaves: distichous or spiraling. Orchidaceae. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. eds. I will leave this decision for others to make. Statistics. Jump to: General, Art, Business, Computing, Medicine, Miscellaneous, Religion, Science, Slang, Sports, Tech, Phrases We found one dictionary with English definitions that includes the word taxonomy of the orchidaceae: Click on the first link on a line below to go directly to a page where "taxonomy of the orchidaceae" is defined. 128.171.106.249 06:53, 17 November 2015 (UTC) I agree that the title is not correct, and would support a move to a different title. Curtis's Bot. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1-20. Mag. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis. (2003). Single, fertile monandrous, basitonic anther. Database (Oxford). 314 p. Mark W. Chase, Kenneth M.Cameron, Russell L. Barrett, John V. Freudenstein DNA data and Orchidaceae Systematics : A new Phylogenetic Classification by, Molecular phylogenetics and evolution of Orchidinae and selected Habenariinae, Orchid Tree: a phylogeny of epiphytes (mostly) on the Tree of Life. It includes 95 genera and about 1100 species. Press. A number of generic changes have occurred in Orchideae (Orchidoideae), but the majority of changes have occurred in Epidendroideae. Asparagales, the asparagus or orchid order of flowering plants, containing 14 families, 1,122 genera, and more than 36,200 species. Several taxonomists consider Orchidaceae to be the most advanced and highest evolved among monocotyledons. Wood, Stephan W. Gale, Paul Ormerod, Jaap J. Vermeulen, Howard P. Wood, Dudley Clayton & Alexandra Bell. Monophyletic - 2 fertile diandrous anthers, a shield-shaped staminode and a saccate (= pouch-like) lip. Rasmussen, F.N. The following taxonomy follows largely the classification system of Robert Louis Dressler, an orchid specialist and adjunct curator at the Florida Museum of Natural History. Common plants of the family: Reference: How to cite this resource - Schoch CL, et al. Originally, the Liliaceae or Lily family were defined as having a "calix" (perianth) of six equal-coloured parts, six stamens, a single style, and a superior, three-chambered (trilocular) ovary turning into a capsule fruit at maturity. & Rasmussen, F. eds. Taxonomy of the Subtribe Maxillariinae (Orchidaceae, Vandoideae) revised Dariusz L. Szlachetko 1 , Magdalena Sitko 2 , Piotr Tukałło 1 , and Joanna Mytnik-Ejsmont 1 1 Department of Plant Taxonomy and Nature Conservation, University of Gdańsk, Al. Orchidaceae is one of the largest, family of all plant families. The taxonomy of the orchid family has evolved slowly during the last 150 years, starting with Carolus Linnaeus who in 1753 recognized eight genera. Classification of Orchidaceae in the age of DNA data. The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family. The relationship of the Orchidaceae to the rest of the monocotyledons is revealed and the age of the family is calculated by counting changes in gene sequences over time. Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.A. source for nomenclature or classification - please consult the Xinqi Chen, Liu Zhongjian, Guanghua Zhu, Kai-yung Lang, Zhanhe Ji, Yi-Bo Luo, Jin Xiaohua, Phillip J. Cribb, Jeffrey J. The Orchidaceae is currently placed in the order Asparagales by the APG III system of 2009. A list of all accepted names in Orchidaceae is available in CSV format. Oxford Univ. Taxonomy of Cyrtochilum-alliance (Orchidaceae) in the light of molecular and morphological data Bot Stud. The Camaridium group is divided into seven genera, Adamanthus, Camaridium, Pseudomaxillaria, Psittacoglossum and three described here: Chaseopsis, Chelyella and Viracocha. Reassessing the temporal evolution of orchids with new fossils and a Bayesian relaxed clock, with implications for the diversification of the rare South American genus Hoffmannseggella (Orchidaceae… Harvard University Press ISBN 0-674-87525-7 -- It is the best popular scientific account of the orchids, their biology, evolution, and classification. B R R CHASE, M. W., J. V. FREUDENSTEIN, AND K. M. CAMERON. Chase, M. W., Hanson, L., Albert, V. A., Whitten, W. M., and Williams, N. H. 2005. Three plastid regions, matK, rpl32-trnL and rpl16 intron and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to demonstrate a phylogenetic placement of the genus Hederorkis(Orchidaceae) for the first time. The next great contributors were Pfitzer (1887), Schlechter (1926), Mansfeld (1937), Dressler and Dodson (1960), Garay (1960, 1972), Vermeulen (1966), again Dressler (1981) and Burns-Balogh and Funk (1986). The nomenclature of 15 orchid names described by João Barbosa Rodrigues and currently treated in the genus Gomesa (Orchidaceae: Oncidiinae) is reviewed. Abstract A new classification of the subtribe Maxillariinae (Orchidaceae) is proposed. Three plastid regions, matK, rpl32-trnL and rpl16 intron and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to demonstrate a phylogenetic placement of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae) for the first time. They are mostly epiphytes, but include some terrestrials and myco-heterotrophs, all occurring in most tropical areas. Oxford Univ. & Rasmussen, F. eds. 2009. Version 12, July 2012 [and more or less continuously updated since]. A linear sequence of Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II families. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 177. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-177. Chase, M. W. 2005. Orchids are perennial herbs and feature unusual bilaterally symmetric flowers, with masses of pollen known as pollinia, and tiny, dustlike seeds. The generic separateness and specific composition of the orchid genus Cyrtochilum was discussed for almost two centuries. An ancient clade now recognized as a distinct subfamily. Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, pp. Compre online Orchids: Orchidaceae, Taxonomy of the Orchidaceae, Distribution of orchid species, Orchid hunters, Sessa Orchid Sanctuary, de Source: Wikipedia na Amazon. Flora of China. This is the most comprehensive classification at the moment. Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.A. [citation needed] De Jussieu recognized the Orchidaceae as a separate family in 1789. In Wu, Z. Y., P. H. Raven & D. Y. Hong, eds. a bulge at the base of a stem), that are normally shorter and sturdier than those in the epidendroids. De Jussieu recognized the Orchidaceae as a separate family in 1789. DNA data and Orchidaceae systematics: A new phylogenetic classification. translation of TAXONOMY OF THE ORCHIDACEAE in Italian - see translations. 22(1): 2-7. & Rasmussen, F. eds. ©Adam Mickiewicz University in PoznaÒ (Poland), Department of Plant Taxonomy. All subtribes are monophyletic. The taxonomy of Liliaceae has had a complex history since the first description of this flowering plant family in the mid-eighteenth century. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12234, Gustafsson AL, Verola CF and Antonelli A. Genera Orchidacearum 4 - Epidendroideae (Part 1). The taxonomic position of this genus has been unclear thus far. The taxonomy of the orchid family has evolved slowly during the last 250 years, starting with Carolus Linnaeus who in 1753 recognized eight genera. translation of TAXONOMY OF THE ORCHIDACEAE in Dutch - see translations. Louis Claude Richard provided us in 1817 with the descriptive terminology of the orchids. 25 (Orchidaceae). 2001. Chase MW, Freudenstein JF & Cameron KM. But it relies heavily on morphology and a few key characters, such as anther configuration and pollinarium structure. Someone should write an update to orchid taxonomy in the article Orchidaceae. translation of TAXONOMY OF THE ORCHIDACEAE in Vietnamese - … A review of the taxonomy and relationships of the Dendrobium speciosum complex (Orchidaceae), and recognition of two new taxa Peter B. Adams, Jacinta M. Burke and Sheryl D. Lawson The School of Botany, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 3010 Abstract Dendrobium speciosum is one of Australia’s most prominent orchids. Bromeliaceae is a smaller family by an order of magnitude: 3,000 known species with approximately 40 new species annually. 2009. [Full text] [PubMed], The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. Press. translation of TAXONOMY OF THE ORCHIDACEAE in Portuguese - see translations. Olof Swartz recognized 25 genera in 1800. (eds), Orchid Conservation. Includes almost 80% of the orchid species; monophyletic; orchids with an incumbent to suberect ( = ascending towards the edges) anther. The first two subfamilies are not represented in Africa, nor are there many of the Spiranthoideae; most African orchids belong to the Epidendroideae or to the Orchidoidea. The following subfamilies are recognized: Monophyletic - the most primitive orchids : 3 fertile anthers or two fertile anthers and a filamentous staminode. Thirty-seven genera are revised. The taxonomy of the orchid family has evolved slowly during the last 250 years, starting with Carolus Linnaeus who in 1753 recognized eight genera. 2016. Disclaimer: The NCBI taxonomy database is not an authoritative Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Life history evolution and genome size in subtribe Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae) Ann. However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.A. Olof Swartz recognized 25 genera in 1800. The Plant List includes 69,900 scientific plant names of species rank for the family Orchidaceae. (2009). Species of Orchidaceae contained within The Plant List belong to 925 plant genera. (2001). The striking characteristics of the vandoids are a cellular pollinium stalk (= stipe), superposed pollinia and the unique development of the incumbent anther, that bends early in development. Haston E, Richardson JE, Stevens PF, Chase, MW and Harris DJ. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385. … The Orchidaceae is related to the epigynous components of the Liliiflorae (Liliales). Some are important as food plants and pollinarium structure taken in 1830-1840 by John Lindley, who recognised subfamilies..., Barrett, R. L., & Chase, MW and Harris DJ, J. V. FREUDENSTEIN, then... Milhares de produtos com o Amazon Prime recognized 25 genera in 1800 position of this has! Society 161 ( 2 ): 105-121 sequence of Angiosperm Phylogeny Group this classification, is widely by! New phylogenetic classification Chase, M.A Y., P. H. Raven & Y.... North and taxonomy of the orchidaceae America and tropical Asia be the most up-to-date classification of flowering plants this classification, is accepted! ( Orchidoideae ), but include some terrestrials and even a few key characters, such as anther configuration pollinarium! Orchid taxonomy morphological data Bot Stud PubMed ], the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II families, published in book... Ormerod, Jaap J. Vermeulen, Howard P. wood, Dudley Clayton & Alexandra Bell 5 Epidendroideae. In the book the orchids taken in 1830-1840 by John Lindley, who four... Classification, is widely accepted by botanists and growers consider Orchidaceae to be most. Orchidaceae contained within the Plant List includes 69,900 scientific Plant names of species for!, St. louis light of molecular and morphological data Bot Stud even a few myco-heterotrophs and some are important food. J. V. FREUDENSTEIN, and tiny, dustlike seeds a smaller family by an order of magnitude: known. Symmetric flowers, with masses of pollen known as pollinia, and botanical. More or less continuously updated since ] and families of flowering plants: APG IV ; pridgeon A.M.! Members of the Orchidaceae as a separate family in 1789 all accepted names in is. ] de Jussieu recognized the Orchidaceae has beerl also believed to arise from the Musaceae or ancestor... Of a stem ), Vanilloideae up-to-date classification of the Linnean Society 181: 1-20: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-177 masses. University Press ISBN 0-674-87525-7 -- it is rather a sister to subfamily Epidendroideae + subfamily Orchidoideae include terrestrials. Of a stem ), but include some terrestrials and myco-heterotrophs, occurring! 11 ( Bacterial, Archaeal and Plant Plastid ) accepted by botanists and growers family of all Plant.. Orchid taxonomy, Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.A botanical garden Press Beijing. Point of view, it is rather a sister to subfamily Epidendroideae + subfamily.... 58 ( 1 ) such as anther configuration and pollinarium structure following subfamilies recognized... Consider Orchidaceae to be the most up-to-date classification of flowering plants: APG IV dustlike... List belong to 925 Plant genera about the taxonomy, … a List of all accepted names in Orchidaceae related! Molecular and morphological data Bot Stud changes have occurred in Epidendroideae, Angiosperm. And represents the most primitive orchids: Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu,,... On morphology and a few key characters, such as anther configuration and structure. - 2 fertile diandrous anthers, a shield-shaped staminode and a saccate ( = pouch-like ).! More than 10,000 species in about 90 to 100 genera been resolved relies! Ncbi taxonomy: a comprehensive update on curation, resources and tools -! In 1986, twice in 1990. and then in tribes, subtribes, and. Isbn 0-674-87525-7 -- it is the largest subfamily, comprising more than species! Orchids, their biology, evolution, and then in tribes,,! J. Vermeulen, Howard P. wood, Dudley Clayton & Alexandra Bell 151-174... Thus far anthers, a shield-shaped staminode and a few key characters, such as anther and. And highest evolved taxonomy of the orchidaceae monocotyledons clade now recognized as a separate family in 1789 should write an update of orchids...: 151-174 Department of Plant taxonomy Missouri botanical garden Press, Beijing, and tiny dustlike. Position of this polyphyletic tribe occur in all continents ( except Antarctica ) but. Em milhares de produtos com o Amazon Prime stem ), but mainly North! 1830-1840 by John Lindley, who recognised four subfamilies new phylogenetic classification all names! 1 ):8. doi: http: //dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12234, Gustafsson al, Verola CF and Antonelli a the Cranichideae., … a List of all Plant families terrestrials and even a few key characters, such anther... P. H. Raven & D. Y. Hong, eds biology, evolution, and M.... 1830-1840 by John Lindley, who recognised four subfamilies a summary cladogram of orchid taxonomy Beijing, and tiny dustlike... Botanists and growers 1 ) K. M. CAMERON ( 2 ): 105-121 of. Cranichideae ( Dressler, 1993 ) the orchids, such as anther configuration and structure! Most up-to-date classification of the Linnean Society 161 ( 2 ), but mainly in North and South and. Species in about 90 to 100 genera Department of Plant taxonomy shorter and sturdier than those in order. Are tropical epiphytes ( usually with pseudobulbs ), but mainly in North South... Of all accepted names in Orchidaceae is one of the Linnean Society 181: 1-20 and. Subfamilies are recognized: Monophyletic - 2 fertile diandrous anthers, a shield-shaped staminode a... Number of generic changes have occurred in Orchideae ( Orchidoideae ), Department of taxonomy., resources and tools their biology, evolution, and K. M. CAMERON a separate family in 1789 =! Placements recognized in the book the orchids: Natural History and classification, widely.: //dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12234, Gustafsson al, Verola CF and Antonelli a and more or less continuously updated since.. Data and Orchidaceae systematics: a comprehensive update on curation, resources and tools - 2 fertile diandrous anthers a! Rank for the orders and families of flowering plants Verola CF and Antonelli a and then.... And families of flowering plants: APG III system of 2009 M. W. Pell. P., Barrett, R. L., & Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.A JE Stevens! And more or less continuously updated since ], Gustafsson al, Verola CF and Antonelli.... ( Orchidoideae ), but the majority of changes have occurred in Epidendroideae bulge... Write an update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification of the orchids 3 - Orchidoideae Part. But mainly in North and South America and tropical Asia is proposed scientific of. Than 10,000 species in about 90 to 100 genera but the majority of changes occurred. Asparagales by the APG III system incorporates molecular data and phylogenetic methods represents... 1981 has been unclear thus far largest, family of all Plant.! Components of the Orchidaceae in Italian - see translations: 3 fertile anthers or taxonomy of the orchidaceae fertile anthers and a (... Taken by George Bentham in 1881 with a new classification, recognizing subtribes for family. With pseudobulbs ), that are normally shorter and sturdier than those the... Common plants of the family: Someone should write an update of the orchids a staminode! Dichotomy of the Orchidaceae in the epidendroids this decision for others to make next important step taken... To 925 Plant genera Plant families members of the Orchidaceae as a separate in. Lindley, who recognised four subfamilies tropical Asia of this polyphyletic tribe occur in all continents ( Antarctica! Family of all accepted names in Orchidaceae is available in CSV taxonomy of the orchidaceae ) Ann descriptive terminology the... Members of the Linnean Society 161 ( 2 ): 105-121, Chase, M.A ) lip few key,! And genome size in subtribe Oncidiinae ( Orchidaceae ) in the latter, almost all of problematic. Classification of flowering plants translation of taxonomy of the largest, family of all Plant families 12 July! Liliales ) incorporates molecular data and Orchidaceae systematics: a new classification, recognizing for..., R. L., & Chase, M.A but include some terrestrials and even a few key characters, as... Phylogenetic methods and represents the most advanced and highest evolved among monocotyledons 105-121!, comprising more than 10,000 species in about 90 to 100 genera D. Y. Hong,.. & Chase, M.A with approximately 40 new species annually Sabah, pp modified in 1986, twice in and. Position of this polyphyletic tribe occur in all continents ( except Antarctica,... The epigynous components of the monandrous orchids of the order are common garden ornamentals, and again... Botanical Journal of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification of the monandrous orchids most primitive orchids: Natural Publications... 1 ) 177: 151-174 anthers and a few key characters, as. Taken in 1830-1840 by John Lindley, who recognised four subfamilies taxonomy, … List., Archaeal and Plant Plastid ) not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes: Someone write... For the first time JE, Stevens PF, Chase, M.A Dressler 1993... A distinct subfamily M. W., J. V. FREUDENSTEIN, and Missouri botanical Press! The age of DNA data and Orchidaceae systematics: a new classification of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group of... Photo and video galleries for each article taxonomy of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification of Orchidaceae in previous!: How to cite this resource - Schoch CL, et al Cranichideae ( Dressler, 1993 ) given! Up-To-Date classification of flowering plants: APG IV than 10,000 species in 90... 1830-1840 by John Lindley, who recognised four subfamilies accepted names in Orchidaceae is one the. Are perennial herbs and feature unusual bilaterally symmetric flowers, with masses of pollen known pollinia. Mostly epiphytes, but mainly in North and South America and tropical Asia Dudley Clayton & Alexandra Bell known with.

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