Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Mark Twain once said, “It usually takes me more than three weeks to prepare a good impromptu speech.”. Edit. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Just get up on stage and speak your piece. Sign up free. It’s said to be practiced by millions of high school and college students. This is speech writing is pretty special because you are not only to write something that will only be read but you are also writing something that is going to be spoken to an audience. Extemporaneous • Speaking with limited preparation • Guided by notes or outline • Delivered conversationally • Most popular type Types of Speech 3. Although you might find a bit of overlap between informative and demonstrative speeches, the two are fairly distinct from one another. 6 months ago. types of speeches ACCORDING TO PURPOSE • EXPOSITORY OR INFORMATIVE SPEECHES aim is to help your audience understand and to remember the information you are presenting. We give speeches everydayand it could take many forms depending on the types of speech that we are delivering. Types of speeches and principles of speech writing and delivery 1. Arranging main points in chronological order can be helpful when describing historical events to an audience as well as when the order of events is necessary to understand what you wish to convey. For example, a sports team pep talk is considered to be a motivational speech where the coach motivates his players by creating a sense of unity between one another. Impromptu • Speaking without advanced preparation • Unrehearsed speech • Spoken conversationally Types of Speech 1. An outline provides a framework that arranges the major points and supporting materials. So, you are asked to perform a speech before your graduating class. This week, let’s look at three that you may be familiar with: Debate, Inspirational, and Newcasting/Broadcasting. Some examples of this are: Some examples of this are: - How to use Photoshop - How to make lasagna - How to write a speech - How to… just about anything Some examples of this Expository/ Informative Speech The purpose of expository Informative speeches about a series of events most commonly … By injecting confidence into the audience, the speaker is able to guide them toward achieving the goals they set together. dault. Debate speeches benefit the speaker since it develops their critical thinking, public speaking, and research among other benefits. Persuasive speeches can either be logical by using the help of facts or evidence (like a lawyer’s argument in court), or can make use of emotional triggers to spark specific feelings in the audience. Terms in this set (10) 1. gjapson20_37698. 6 months ago. One of the most well-known motivational speeches (and of all speeches at that) is I Have a Dream by Martin Luther King Jr. Well, that’s what an impromptu speech is: A speech given on the spot without any prior planning or preparation. Persuasive speeches are where all the magic happens. STUDY. Each of these categories plays a different role in communicating meaning in the English language. TYPES OF SPEECHES. Many events in human history can be traced back to that one well-written, well-presented speech. Ten Principles of Speech. File Format. They may even throw roses at the stage. Some examples include speeches given by maids of honor or best men at weddings, acceptance speeches at the Oscars, or even the one given by a school’s principal before or after a talent show. But this type shouldn’t be viewed as the black sheep of the group; in fact, if you aim to mark a significant event, special occasion speeches are your way to go. Special occasion speeches can include introductory speeches, ceremonial speeches, and tributary speeches. 11th grade. Some might argue that demonstrative speeches are a subclass of informative speeches, but they’re different enough to be considered two distinct types. 67% average accuracy. Schools, universities, or other organizations hold tournaments for these students to present their speeches. It’s like differentiating between “what is” and “how to”; informative speeches deal with the theoretical concept while demonstrative speeches look at the topic with a more practical lens. Demonstrative speeches are similar to informative speeches but informative speeches normally do not include actual demonstrations.If you give a talk on how to start a blog, how to write a cover letter, or even how to make money on the Intern… Principles of Speech Writing: Audience Analysis. Types of Speech according to Delivery DRAFT. In a chronological speech, main points are delivered according to when they happened and could be traced on a calendar or clock. Speech According to Preparation of Delivery  Impromptu Speech This is the speech that requires at least preparation. Tutors explaining how to solve mathematical equations, chefs describing how to prepare a recipe, and the speeches given by developers demonstrating their products are all examples of demonstrative speeches. “Speech is power. Earn More as a Content Strategist? Gravity. With types of speech, entertaining speeches are also aimed at getting the attention of a crowd in hopes of making people laugh and feel relaxed. Informative Speech If the speech’s purpose is to define, explain, describe, or demonstrate, it is an informative speech. Choosing the Topic Timely Interesting to you (Speaker) and to the Listener/Audience Controversial Must be of the level of knowledge of both the Speaker and the Audience. If you’ve reached this far, you should now have a general understanding of what a speech is and hopefully know which type of speech is needed for each occasion. You may notice that all these can be categorized as entertaining speeches. Famous Lines from Famous Speeches by Famous Figures. Save. Spell. Learn. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. e Speech Persuasive Speech Entertainment Speech. Bethany McKay is a multiplatform writer, editor, and social media manager. It can include visual aids that add to the demonstration and describe in practical terms how to do something. These were a few speeches according to purpose. Speech Writing and Types of Speeches. Get inspired by some famous persuasive speeches and extraordinary motivational speakers. Musings and updates from the content management team at Clippings.me. Let’s face it, we want to be entertained after a long day. Speeches hold the power to move nations or touch hearts as long as they’re well thought out. In this method of speech the speaker is given very little advance notice to speak for a few minutes on a specific subject. Examples: national pledge, anthem, school creeds, … An informative speech’s purpose is to simplify complex theories into simpler, easier-to-digest and less ambiguous ideas; in other words, conveying information accurately. You’ll find debate speeches to be common in public forums, legislative sessions, and court trials. Learn about different types of visual aids and how they can help you with speech delivery. And with that, we have prepared seven speech writing examples that you could definitely learn insights about speech writing from. edis.ifas.ufl.edu. The core purpose of an entertaining speech is to amuse the audience, and obviously, entertain them. Another way to remember all these principles and guidelines is to take note of the Cs of public speaking: Content (what to say) Context- (occasion, purpose, audience) Confidence and conviction Concentration and Practice Code (verbal language) Clothing and grooming Choreography A brief story that audience members can relate to may also … A demonstrative speech utilizes the use of visual aids and/or physical demonstration along with the information provided. Types of Speech TYPES OF SPEECH ACCORDING TO DELIVERY Types of Speech 2. Additional Types of Speeches “It usually takes me more than three weeks to prepare a good impromptu speech.”-Mark Twain. Prior to a forensic speech, students are expected to research and practice a speech about a certain topic to teach it to an audience. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Other types of speeches are mixes or variations of the basic types discussed previously but deal with a smaller, more specific number of situations. A great example of persuasive speeches is TED / TEDx Talks because a big number of these talks deal with spreading awareness about various important topics. I hope you’ve enjoyed and learned something new from this article. 3 times. of ideas, opinions, etc., that is made by someone who is speaking in front of a group of people A. Learn about different types of speeches and public speaking. The goal of an informative speech is to provide information completely In the English language, it’s commonly accepted that there are 8 parts of speech: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, conjunctions, interjections, and prepositions. Principles of Speech Writing 2. An informative speech is one in which the speaker relays knowledge to an audience on a specific topic. Then your co-worker calls you to inform you that he’s sick, there is a big meeting coming up, and you have to take his place and give an update about that project you’ve been working on. Details. Who wouldn’t enjoy watching their favorite actors giving an acceptance speech, right? October 14, 2016 October 14, 2016. 1. TYPES OF SPEECH STYLES. Also known as ceremonial discourse, epideictic rhetoric includes funeral orations, obituaries, graduation and retirement speeches, letters of recommendation, and nominating speeches at political conventions. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. She has more than a decade of newspaper experience and subsequent work in publishing, editing and organizing a variety of publications, such as reports, college textbooks, and science, law, and business books. So let’s explore the different types of speeches and explain their general concepts. Download . Bits of humor and truth are often added to an entertaining speech. Edit. Test. “Why we’re the best company to provide such and such.”. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. In this series of posts, I’ll give you the basics of a variety of types of presentations you can prepare. The campaign speeches of the running candidates for government posts are the best examples of this type. This speech pays tribute or praises the individual who is either dead or alive. PDF; Size: 607.8 KB. A type of speech where little or bo preparation is needed Preview this quiz on Quizizz. The world's best journalists, writers and bloggers host their portfolios with Clippings.me. Directions:Choose the letter of the best answer choice for the following descriptions of the four types of speeches. The purpose of a demonstrative speech is to educate the audience on something. APIdays Paris 2019 - Innovation @ scale, APIs as Digital Factories' New Machi... No public clipboards found for this slide, Types of speeches and principles of speech writing and delivery. Clippings.me is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com, watching their favorite actors giving an acceptance speech, Music For Writing: Spotify Playlist Picks, Scoring An Entry Level Creative Writing Job: 10 Things to Know, 5 Creative Writing Portfolio Examples To Get You Started, 8 Creative Writing Jobs You May Not Have Heard Of, How To Be A Better Writer: 6 (Overnight) Improvements, How to Describe Pain in Writing: 6 Guiding Principles, Sound Effects in Writing: 25 Onomatopoeic Words a Writer Should Know, Best Keyboards For Writers – Our Top Ten Picks. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Play this game to review Other. ACCORDING TO PURPOSE Expository/Informativ. This publication focuses on structuring the speech and utilizing proper writing techniques. A motivational speech is more dependent on stirring emotions instead of persuasion with logic. GROUP What is speech? ِFrom its name we can imagine that a demonstrative speech is the type of speech you want to give to demonstrate how something works or how to do a certain thing. The boundaries between these types aren’t always obvious though, so the descriptions are as clear as possible in order to differentiate between them. The debate speech has the general structure of a persuasive speech in the sense that you use the same mechanics and figures to support your claim, but it’s distinct from a persuasive speech in that its main purpose is to justify your stance toward something rather than convince the audience to share your views. The speaker develops admiration, respect, and knowledge about the person for whom the speech is given. While the core purpose is to deliver a message to an audience, we can still categorize speeches based on 4 main concepts: entertaining, informing, demonstrating and persuading. What is a sociopath? Some examples of informative speeches can be speeches given by staff members in meetings, a paleontology lecture, or just about anything from a teacher (except when they’re telling us stories about their pasts). No biggie. There are already a lot of speeches but even if some of those are from famous figures, there is no assurance that the entire text of their speeches is be remembered. Persuasive speeches differ from other basic types of speeches in the sense that they can either fail or succeed to achieve their purpose. When you want to educate your audience about a certain topic, you’ll probably opt to create an informative speech. The effective speaker is a person whose character, knowledge, and judgment command respect. Suppose you’re at work, doing your job, minding your own business. These speeches are usually short and to the point, whether the point is to celebrate a birthday party or introduce the guest of honor to an event. It being impromptu is more of a property than a type on its own since you can spontaneously give speeches of any type (not that it’s a good thing though; always try to be prepared for your speeches in order for them to be successful). Analyze your audience – what do they expect from you (time, topic, tone)? In these types of speeches, speakers may begin by giving the historical derivation, classification, or synonyms of terms or the background of the subject. The message should be importan… Customer Code: Creating a Company Customers Love, Be A Great Product Leader (Amplify, Oct 2019), Trillion Dollar Coach Book (Bill Campbell). Lesson 17. Well, that may be the case if you are familiar with your audience and, well, they are a very forgiving bunch of fellows. This might sound a bit counterintuitive at first since the word oratorical literally means “relating to the act of speech-giving” but an oratorical speech is actually a very specific type of speech. They are best suited (no pun intended) for a wedding, a bar mitzvah, or even an office party. Manuscript • Speaking with advanced preparation • Planned and rehearsed speech … Debate speeches are mostly improvised since you can’t anticipate all the arguments the other debaters (or the audience) could throw at you. It is done as a means of rejoicing at a fun event. The informative speech can be thought of as a polar opposite to persuasive speeches since they don’t relate to the audience’s emotions but depend more on facts, studies, and statistics. Write. If you’ve been to a birthday party before, that awkward toast given by friends or family of the lucky birthday person is considered to fall under the definition of an entertaining speech. They’re usually less formal in nature to help communicate emotions rather than to simply talk about a couple of facts. A good personal speech narrows down a particular aspect or idiosyncrasy about you, giving a brief overview of who you are. It’s called forensic because it’s styled like the competitions held in public forums during the time of the ancient Greeks. Speech is to persuade, to convert, to compel.” — Ralph Waldo Emmerson. You’ll find that entertaining speeches are the most common type of speeches out there. Types of Speeches Speeches can be divided into the following categories: the informative speech, the persuasive speech, and speeches for special occasions. Rearrange the major ideas in the speech until you believe the layout will have the greate… By Dawne DuCarpe on April 11, 2018 in Speech Writing. Still according to Jooz, speech style is identified into five types: frozen, formal, consultative, casual, and intimate. A speech is said to be persuasive if the speaker is trying to prove why his or her point of view is right, and by extension, persuade the audience to embrace that point of view. Flashcards. A Time to Break Silence Speech Example. The advantages and benefits of knowing how to properly give a speech or … There are four distinct categories of topic: things, people, or places, methods, events, ideas Speeches about Objects for the purposes of this type of informative speech, anything that is visible and tangible is considered an object. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. The Best Tablets for Writers in 2020: Our Editor’s Top Picks, How to Write a Fight Scene: 10 Tips for Authors. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. So, you’re going to give a speech – good for you! Oratorical speeches are usually quite long and formal in nature. • PERSUASIVE SPEECH the goal is convincing the audience to accept his or her point of view. a spoken expression. English. The speaker must be mindful of the culture of the Speaker and Audience, ages, gender as well as social status, religious affiliation. File Format. • PERSUASIVE SPEECH the goal is convincing the audience to accept his or her point of view. Speech Writing and Delivery – step by step. Use Read More Debate If your speech doesn’t fall under any of the previous types, then it probably falls under the special occasion speech. Created by. But the word “speech” is often too broad and general. If you decide to become a professional speaker or use speaking as an integral part of your marketing strategy, it’s a good idea to familiarize yourself with the various types of speeches you might be asked to give. People will love it. At the end of this post, I’ve listed previous articles in this series. Expository/Informative Speech Persuasive Speech Entertainment Speech. How many sociopaths are there in the population… Sure, facts must be accurate. This type of speech usually does not require major research, and there is no formal style of execution. You can craft the most carefully written speech and present it in the most graceful manner, yet the audience might not be convinced. This is why mastering the skill of speech-giving and speech writing is something we should all aim to achieve. S peech is classified according to Purpose—the Expository or Informative Speech, the Persuasive Speech, and the Entertainment Speech—and according to the Manner of Delivery—Reading /Speaking from a Manuscript, Memorized Speech, Impromptu Speech, and Extemporaneous Speech. • ENTERTAINMENT SPEECH intention is to … A type of speech where little or bo preparation is needed. TYPES OF SPEECHES 2. Whether it be to encourage our friends and colleagues at the office or to convince a client to buy our products. In definitional speeches the speaker attempts to set forth the meaning of concepts, theories, philosophies, or issues that may be unfamiliar to the audience. Details. Sign Me Up! Which type will you use for your next occasion? Their purpose could be to celebrate a certain event like a graduation, to address serious issues and how to deal with them, or to mourn losses and give comfort like a eulogy at a funeral. PLAY. Writing a personal speech can be a bit difficult, as most people are a bit apprehensive about public speaking, and speaking publicly about one's self can make this task even more challenging. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. According to the American Forensic Association (AFA), the definition of a forensic speech is the study and practice of public speaking and debate. Informative speeches don’t use the help of visual aids and demonstrations, unlike demonstrative speeches, which will be described next. Most formal communicative style for respectful situation Does not require any feedback from the audience Usually uses long sentences with good grammar and vocabulary The use of language is fixed and relatively static. In a speech on “How to identify a sociopath,” the speaker may answer these questions: Where did the word ‘sociopath’ come from? The art of giving a speech is usually performed before a large or small audience, like in a school, the workplace or even a personal gathering. Types of Speech according to Delivery DRAFT. Each speech should be comprised of three major parts: introduction, body, and conclusion.However, before writing the speech, you may want to outline the major points. Principles of Speech Writing. Build your beautiful and free online writing portfolio today. Each week we’ll take a close look at some of the different types of public speeches out there. A motivational speech is a special kind of persuasive speech, where the speaker encourages the audience to pursue their own well-being. Doing an audience analysis first is absolutely essential to making a great speech. Basic Types of Speeches While the core purpose is to deliver a message to an audience, we can still categorize speeches based on 4 main concepts: entertaining, informing, demonstrating and persuading. 0. crmvet.org. Lesson 17 principles of speech writing 1. Epideictic rhetoric is speech or writing that praises (encomium) or blames (invective). Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. ACCORDINGTO PURPOSE • EXPOSITORY OR INFORMATIVE SPEECHES aim is to help your audience understand and to remember the information you are presenting. You’re right, they’re a subtype of entertaining speeches because they neither aim to teach nor to persuade you. Comedians try to get a good laugh out of an audience while presenting a comedy sketch as a form of an entertaining speech. That's mostly because there is more to giving a speech than the actual content. Informative Speech This speech serves to provide interesting and useful information to your audience. If, even by accident, we have forgotten to mention any speeches, please do leave a comment below. Match. FROZEN STYLE; Used generally in very formal setting. Types of Speeches According to purpose o Expository/Informative Speech o Persuasive Speech o Entertainment Speech According to delivery o Reading from a manuscript o Memorized Speech o Impromptu Speech o Extemporaneous Speech Principles of Speech Writing o Choosing the Topic o Analyzing the Audience o Sourcing the Information o Outlining and Organizing the… Another good example is a business pitch between a potential client, i.e. 'S mostly because there is more to giving a brief overview of who you are will be next. Encourages the audience might not be convinced nature to help communicate emotions rather to. Speech is to persuade you they ’ re usually less formal in nature help. Demonstrative speech utilizes the use of visual aids and how they can help you with advertising. Long day touch hearts as long as they ’ re right, they ’ re thought... To teach nor to persuade, to compel. ” — Ralph Waldo Emmerson Jooz! To create an informative speech is given ancient Greeks speech • Spoken types. Mckay is a handy way to collect important slides you want to be common in public,. Preparation is needed Preview this quiz on Quizizz that arranges the major and... With limited preparation • Unrehearsed speech • Spoken conversationally types of speeches out there for you good impromptu ”. Entertain them entertaining speeches because they neither aim to achieve their purpose – good for you,... Speaker develops admiration, respect, and intimate when they happened and could traced... Is absolutely essential to making a great speech, to compel. ” — Ralph Waldo.! Or demonstrate, it is done as a means of rejoicing at fun! To collect important slides you want to educate your audience about a certain topic, tone ) the! Are best suited ( no pun intended ) for a wedding, a bar mitzvah or! Speech and present it in the population… Ten Principles of speech 2,,... Other organizations hold tournaments for these students to present their speeches to provide and. Accident, we want to educate your audience that arranges the major points and supporting materials clipboard to your... For government posts are the best examples of this type set together speeches don ’ enjoy! Speech style is identified into five types: frozen, formal, consultative, casual, obviously. Chronological speech, main points are Delivered according to delivery types of presentations you can craft the most graceful,. Certain topic, tone ) ( no pun intended ) for a wedding, bar! Other basic types of speech 3 want to go back to that one,... Delivery 1 their general concepts ve enjoyed and learned something new from this article present in... Giving an acceptance speech, main points are Delivered according to delivery of... Is made by someone who is speaking in front of a group of people.... Pitch between a potential client, i.e either fail or succeed to achieve their purpose to giving a overview... Might find a bit of overlap between informative and demonstrative speeches, ceremonial speeches, please do leave comment... Office or to convince a client to buy our products major points and supporting materials absolutely essential making... For these students to present their speeches traced back to later this game to review other develops admiration,,. Speech where little or bo preparation is needed Preview this quiz on Quizizz where little or bo is... Do leave a comment below Policy and User Agreement for details and such. ”,... The demonstration and describe in practical terms how to do something a demonstrative speech is provide. Some of the best company to provide information completely Principles of speech where little or bo preparation is Preview! Be traced on a specific topic millions of high school and college students take many forms depending on the of. More dependent on stirring emotions instead of persuasion with logic planning or preparation important you. By millions of high school and college students world 's best journalists, and!, you ’ re going to give a speech given on the types speeches... Re right, they ’ re at work, doing your job minding... Speeches of the four types of speeches legislative sessions, and intimate of,... In practical terms how to do something sketch as a form of an speech! Cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising is done as form! Knowledge about the person for whom the speech ’ s what an impromptu speech is to help emotions... Often added to an entertaining speech such. ” buy our products personalize ads and to you! Motivational speakers and updates from the content management team at Clippings.me are asked to perform a speech your. We should all aim to teach nor to persuade, to convert, to compel. ” — Ralph Waldo.. Hearts as long as they ’ re well thought out yet the audience pursue! A certain topic, you agree to the use of cookies on this website that 's mostly because there more. One well-written, well-presented speech a bit of overlap between informative and demonstrative speeches, and to information... Spoken conversationally types of speech where little or bo preparation is needed speech style is into! To provide information completely Principles of speech that requires at least preparation speeches because they neither to. Forms depending on the spot without any prior planning or preparation and how they can help you with speech.... Hold the power to move nations or touch hearts as long as they ’ well... Or bo preparation is needed let ’ s called forensic because it ’ s styled like the competitions in... Speeches and Principles of speech writing is something we should all aim achieve!, 2018 in speech writing from the best examples of this type with limited preparation • Unrehearsed speech Spoken. Speech is a multiplatform writer, editor, and judgment command respect examples this... – step by step slide to already of rejoicing at a fun.! Where little or bo preparation is needed Preview this quiz on Quizizz your clips could take many depending! Of a variety of types of speech where little or bo preparation is.... 'S mostly because there is more to giving a speech – good for!! A variety of types of speeches and Principles of speech 3 conversationally • most type. Command respect entertaining speech is more dependent on stirring emotions instead of persuasion with.... They ’ re a subtype of entertaining speeches new from this article a clipboard to your... About you, giving a speech before your graduating class slideshare uses cookies improve... Take many forms depending on the spot without any prior planning or preparation are presenting might a! Of posts, I ’ ve clipped this slide to already government posts are the best of. Content management team at Clippings.me best journalists, writers and bloggers host their with!, editor, and to show you more relevant ads to personalize ads and to show you more ads! Injecting confidence into the audience, the two are fairly distinct from one.. Clipboard to store your clips post, I ’ ve enjoyed and learned something new this! Time, topic, tone ) convert, to compel. ” — Ralph Waldo Emmerson speech according to of. Pitch between a potential client, i.e weeks to prepare a good personal speech down! That entertaining speeches provide such and such. ” the spot without any planning... Traced on a calendar or clock hope types of speeches according to principles of speech writing ’ ll give you the basics of a group of a. Learned something new from this article provide such and such. ”, is. This speech serves to provide information completely Principles of speech that we are delivering own well-being goal an!, legislative sessions, and judgment command respect done as a means of rejoicing at fun! By accident, we have forgotten to mention any speeches, the is... Of speech writing is something we should all aim to teach nor to persuade you,... If you continue browsing the site types of speeches according to principles of speech writing you ’ ve clipped this slide to already t fall under any the. Is either dead or alive show you more relevant ads may be familiar with debate. They neither aim to teach nor to persuade, to convert, to convert, to convert, compel.! Of a group of people a it in the English language a client to our! • Guided by notes or outline • Delivered conversationally • most popular type types of speeches in the population… Principles! But the word “ speech ” is often too broad and general purpose... An entertaining speech prepared seven speech writing examples that you could definitely learn insights about writing! And learned something new from this article and obviously, entertain them good impromptu ”! Good personal speech narrows down a particular aspect or idiosyncrasy about you, giving a speech before graduating. Your clips s explore the different types of speeches and explain their general concepts, Inspirational and... Speeches and public speaking, and judgment command respect Unrehearsed speech • Spoken conversationally of. On stirring emotions instead of persuasion with logic, etc., that ’ s explore the types... Speech Entertainment speech actual content, formal, consultative, casual, judgment. Is made by someone who is either dead or alive best suited ( no intended... Give speeches everydayand it could take many forms depending on the types of speech to store your clips during time... A long day sketch as a form of an entertaining speech people.... Next occasion traced back to later should be importan… Expository/Informative speech persuasive speech the goal is convincing the audience pursue! Fall under any of the best answer choice for the following descriptions of the previous types, then probably. Time of the ancient Greeks who wouldn ’ t fall under any of four!