Conservation Biology, Cambridge, v. 14, n. 1, p. 240-253, 2000. The areas used by giant river otters are vulnerable to water level oscillations and pulses, directly influencing the resources the animals use. Records of human interference were also pooled according to sampling year. In addition to potentially negative human impacts reported, we tried to record all events of possible human interference with giant river otters in the region, including direct signs or recent hunting (e.g. Mamíferos aquáticos do Brasil: plano de ação. [ Links ], SCHENCK, C.; STAIB, J. The two-month-old was found near a bald eagle that was scavaging the carcass of an adult otter. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Cambridge, Cambridge. Urumutum and Baré streams were hotspots of negative interactions (Figures 2 and 3). Find … Since giant river otters occupy the highest trophic level, they are among the first species to disappear when the environment is altered or contaminated (FOSTER-TURLEY et al., 1990; PARERA, 1996). The bites to her arms and legs were so severe that They also build a communal latrine. Giant otters are also found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, and are believed to have become extinct in Argentina and Uruguay. B.Sc. groups called holts. Conflict between fishermen and giant otters Pteronura brasiliensis in Western Brazilian Amazon. The Giant Otter Conversation Authoring Platform is a powerful solution for building bots bottom-up. B.; QUEIROZ, H. L.; PINTO, L. P.; MASTERSON, D.; CAVALCANTI, R. B. Os corredores ecológicos das florestas tropicais do Brasil. The giant otter (GO - Pteronura brasiliensis) is the largest otter species, endemic to South America and currently considered endangered ... so that isolated human dwellings next to these watercourses enable more otter sightings during the wet season. Photo by: Frank Hajek. Staff at ASLC speculate the adult otter may have been the pup’s mother. Giant otter populations were decimated throughout their range by the fur trade, for example, 1000–3000 pelts were exported annually from the Brazilian Amazon during the 1950–60’s (Smith, 1980). (Your vote has been cast.) crustaceans and small snakes. Komododo. They can be up to 100 pounds so they are the heaviest of all species. Rua Nelson Chaves s/n, Cidade Universitária, 50.670-420, Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. Plano de ação nacional para a conservação dos mamíferos aquáticos: pequenos cetáceos. In this channel, you will discover the wild world in all its splendor. family group for a period time after. 195p. [ Links ], LIMA, D. S.; MARMONTEL, M.; BERNARD, E. Reoccupation of historical areas of use by the endangered giant river otter Pteronura brasiliensis (Carnivora: Mustelidae) in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Rua Nelson Chaves s/n, Cidade Universitária, 50.670-420, Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. Giant Otter is a ragtag band of AI researchers, web developers, and game industry veterans, passionate about building technologies that understand human … [ Links ], PERES, C. Effects of subsistence hunting on vertebrate community structure in Amazonian forests. Based on the information provided by our co-investigators, the residents that interacted negatively with giant river otters were contacted and encouraged to report their experiences. Commercial hunting was determinant in the disappearance of giant river otters along areas of historical occurrence in the Brazilian Amazonia. B; RYLANDS, A. Giant river otters were regarded not only as competitors, but also as responsible for damaging gillnets while trying to get the fish caught in them. ALENCAR, E. F. Estudo da ocupação humana e mobilidade geográfica de comunidades rurais da Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Aman㠖 RDSA. The young are weaned sometime Facts about Sea Otter, Giant Otter, European Otter, African Otter and River Otter. We believe that the growth in populations of giant river otters and their subsequent contact with humans in the surroundings of the Amanã Lake will lead to an increase in negative interactions, with negative consequences for a species that, even increasing its local population, is still endangered. It was observed that river margins, key-areas for giant river otters, are being converted into annual crops (locally known as roças), contributing to change the availability of areas once used as dens, campsites or resting sites by the animals (see LIMA et al., 2012). A way to conciliate the expectation of income by the local population with the purposes of the reserve could be the exploration of giant river otters as a touristic attraction. Michael Noonan, PhD. About Us. Illegal gold mining activities and deforestation have severely affected the habitat of giant otters in the Peruvian amazon. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis, Brasília, 2001. Local residents reported that giant river otters frequently damage gillnets in an attempt to remove fish, which causes economic loss and a negative attitude towards otters. Mammal Review, Oxford, n. 27, p. 1-26, 1997. Palabras-clave: conflictos pesqueros, bosques inundados, Lutrinae, Reservas de Desarollo Sostenible, Brasil. The heaviest weigh in at up to 100lbs – again, you wouldn’t want to get on the wrong side of an animal of that bulk. its historical areas of occurrence (MARMONTEL and CALVIMONTES, 2004; Lima et al., 2014). Mitigation and monitoring of these threats are paramount for the maintenance of giant river otters in the area. Disponível em: . According to interviewees, in this scenario, legalized hunting would be encouraged as an economical alternative for local communities, and would exert a control on the otter population, minimizing the damages caused by these animals. endangered, both by the US Fish and Wildlife and by the IUCN. 16 p.         [ Links ], ROSAS, F. C. W.; SOUSA-LIMA, R. S.; DA SILVA, V. M. F. Avaliação preliminar dos mamíferos do baixo rio Purus. With a footprint that is often bigger than a human hand, the giant river otter is the largest of the world’s 13 otter species, reaching six feet in length and weighing up to 70 pounds. A direct search for residents with information on negative interactions with giant river otters was also carried out. Boletin Tecnico de la Fundación Vida Silvestre Argentina, Buenos Aires, n. 21, p. 1-38, 1996. Biotropica, Washington, n. 42, p. 537-539. The mated pair remains together year-round, and is believed to be monogamous [18] . Our findings will have been communicated to the conservation community so that managers and decision-makers in other regions can benefit from lessons learned. Black Ice. CHIZZOTI, 2000). (Eds.). Spotted necked otter. These shots resulted in the death of two individuals. Conversely, during high water periods, animals may have to move to higher places, due to the flooding of dens or campsites. The map of records of giant river otters upstream of the Amanã Lake during the study suggests that there are 14 areas where these negative interferences occur (Figure 2). 5(42%) Human - Homo sapiens Humans (known taxonomically as Homo sapiens, Latin for "wise man" or "knowing man") are the only … Conservation Biology, Cambridge, v. 17, n. 6, p. 1491-1499. For 85% of the interviewees this procedure aimed at scaring away the otters. As a top predator, the giant otter does not have many natural threats. Found in South America, it inhabits slow-moving rivers and creeks and feeds predominantly on fish. Although only a few kills were confirmed, it is recognized that collateral death caused by hunting may also be significant (Peres, 2000). The Versão III. Production in the region was based until the 1970s on plant extraction and commercial hunting, mainly for the trade of animal skin, including otters (Lontra longicaudis and P. brasiliensis) and jaguars (Panthera onca). They hunt for food both in the water such as fish and then also land creatures including small reptiles. E-mail: enricob2@gmail.com. These crops are established by slash-and-burn; in two cases this practice altered the patterns of use by two giant river otter groups. The giant otter is Endemic to South America, the giant river otter is restricted to aquatic ecosystems in tropical forests and wetlands up to 300 m a.s.l. Behavior and conservation of the Amazon’s giant river otter. The These residents avoided placing gillnets in sites with recent vestiges of giant river otters. Behavior and conservation of the Amazon’s giant river otter. Decreto nº 19.021, de 04 de agosto de 1998. However, the full extent of these human threats on giant otters are not well understood yet. With a footprint that is often bigger than a human hand, the giant river otter is the largest of the world’s 13 otter species, reaching six feet in length and weighing up to 70 pounds. Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade, Brasília, 2010. food is eaten at 3-4 months of age. Apr 15, 2014 - Giant Otters planning their next move Pteronura brasiliensis - - animal, giant, otters, planning, move, pteronura, brasiliensis. However, thanks to successful conservation efforts the numbers have continued to increase. Disponível em: . Adults can reach nearly 1.8 m in total length, and 30 kg in weight, with males slightly larger than females (DUPLAIX, 1980). Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Giant river otter cubs are born totally covered with fur; indeed, the species is one of the only carnivores with a fur-covered nose, according to the Los Angeles Zoo and Botanical Gardens. The difference between those types of fisheries may lie in the frequency of occurrence and the extension of the nets used, but both should be considered in the identification of threats to giant river otters. The International Ecotourism Society. Looking for giant otters in mined areas of the Peruvian Amazon By Adi Barocas . The mitigation and monitoring of the threats identified in the present study are very important for the conservation of giant river otters in the region. Four years of field surveys were carried out to confirm the presence of giant river otters in the area and to assess local threats to the species. Sociobiology, California, v. 52, n. 2, p. 257-270, 2008. In Brazil, the species is considered under extinction risk in an imminent future (IBAMA, 2001; MACHADO et al., 2008; ICMBio, 2010). 671 Sample size Small Data quality Acceptable Observations One 17.3 years old specimen was still alive in captivity []. 2011. Sharks, eagles, snakes, otter and many other animals will be present. Ações de pesquisa e conservação com relação ao estudo de ariranhas (Pteronura brasiliensis) no Brasil. 1 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank IDS Mamirauá, MCT&I and FEPIM; Programa PETROBRAS Ambiental; FIDESA; IIEB and Programa BECA-IEB/Fundação Moore (B/2007/02/BMP/03); CNPq (Process nº 135248/2007-8) and CAPES for the financial support. Depending on how you measure it, this species may or Animals - Weasels - Sea Otter. (2012) and Lima et al. We also thank the staff at the IDS Mamirauá and PPGBio – Unifap for their assistance. Pteronura brasiliensis (Zimmermann, 1780), the giant otter, is the largest freshwater otter. The perception that after the establishment of a dense population of giant river otters a 'management plan' for skin trade could be implemented were recorded in 14% of the reports (n = 12). Relatório Final, Instituto de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá, Tefé, 2006, 117 p.         [ Links ], AMAZONAS. Come dive into the wilderness. Photorator photo. 2 ed. Editora Brasil Natureza Ltda., Curitiba. E-mail: marmontel@mamiraua.org.br, 4. One otter surfaced right next to 5 testimonial my canoe and snorted in alarm, inches away. A holt may consist of as many as 10 Both species are said to have had a high economic importance in the past. Hence, in the present study, we intend to advance the knowledge on threats to giant river otters in the Brazilian Amazonia, more specifically in the Amanã Reserve. a member of the weasel family, Mustelidae, in the Mammalian Order of Since their diet is mainly piscivorous, giant river otters may change areas, following seasonal fish migrations (DUPLAIX, 1980). (Eds.). The local situation of giant otters in Amanã requires a better diffusion on the requirements a species must have before being considered for commercial use. Out of 107 encounters with residents heading to extractivism areas, in 36% (n = 39) dogs were observed onboard. Fax: +55 (97) 3343-9718. Giant otter tourism in Peru: boom or bust for conservation? There are many different kinds of otters. The giant otter diet was assessed from fecal samples, and the human diet through questionnaires. The Sea Otter has a small round face that is absolutely adorable. Las amenazas identificadas incluyen: (1) percepción de los lobos de río como competidores en la pesca de subsistencia; (2) conversión de áreas naturales en áreas de cultivos anuales; (3) retiro de crías para ser criadas como mascota; (4) transmisión potencial de enfermedades por animales domésticos. Apex Predator. Giant river otter populations are specially threatened by diseases transmitted by domestic animals in riverine communities, such as parvovirus and canine distemper (SCHENCK, 1999). (Org.). Fishing was performed only between crop seasons and some families cultivated manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz) for consumption and occasional trade (ALENCAR, 2006). Sampling procedures – Forty field sessions were carried out, between October 2004 and September 2008, searching for records of otters in the basin of the Amanã Lake. [ Links ], VARGAS, C. E. R.; MARMONTEL, M. Projeto Ariranhas do Pantanal: estudos de ariranhas na região de Miranda (MS). According to Alencar (2006), the Amanã Lake played an important role in the process of human occupation in the region, because it was used as an access to the rivers Negro and Japurá. As ameaças identificadas incluem: percepção dos moradores locais em relação à espécie como concorrentes da pesca de subsistência, conversão de áreas naturais em culturas anuais, remoção de filhotes para manutenção como animais de estimação e potencial transmissão de doenças por animais domésticos. Nuestro equipo desarrolló un estudio de campo de cuatro años con el objetivo de confirmar y cuantificar la presencia de la especie y de levantar las amenazas locales. Rodovia Juscelino Kubitschek s/n, km 2, Jardim Marco Zero, 68.902-280, Macapá, Amapá, Brasil. These people were identified during occasional encounters and, from the first approach on, we used snowball sampling (BERNARD, 2005), i.e., the interviewee could indicate other people with possible useful information. I'd favor the otter. The data were ordered in a temporal sequence, for a better analysis of the information: year I - October 2004 to September 2005, year II - October 2005 to September 2006, year III - October 2006 to September 2007, and year IV - October 2007 to September 2008. Departamento de Zoologia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas. Twenty-eight per cent of the residents (n = 23) reported damages in nets, mainly in those made of 0.30-mm and 0.40-mm nylon thread, which are used by the local population to capture species such as Semaprochilodus spp., locally known as jaraquis, pacus (Mylossoma spp. threats. 80 p.         [ Links ], AYRES, J. M.; FONSECA, G. A. [ Links ], Sea Otter Recovery Team. The piscivorous habits of giant otters lead to negative human perception and conflicts with fisheries. 256 p.         [ Links ], BERNARD, H. R. Research methods in anthropology: qualitative and quantitative approaches. eat small caiman—a relative of alligators—when they cannot find In year II, the species expanded the area used to the headwaters of Amanã Lake and three negative interactions were recorded along Urumutum and two along Baré. In: SHACKLEY, M. 2010. listed as Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Biotropica, Washington, v. 31, p. 502-506. Giant otter sightings were obtained from a total of 198.9 km of rivers (river length measured via GPS) surrounding the National Forest of Amapá. Telefone: +55 (97) 3343-9782. 200p. Just about everyone that seems them has a comment in that regard to make. Sociedade Civil Mamirauá, Belém, 2005. 3,566 864. E-mail: limadanielle@terra.com.br IIGrupo de Pesquisa em Mamíferos Aquáticos Amazônicos (GPMAA), Instituto de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá. enough fish. This adorable video of a baby otter munching on ice cubes will MELT your heart. Informaciones acerca del impacto humano sobre esta población fueron compiladas a partir de entrevistas con 83 habitantes. consists of slow-swimming fish, such as perch and catfish, However, their numbers have declined due to human impacts, and these animals are now listed as endangered, both by the US Fish and Wildlife and by the IUCN . The identification of current and potential threats to giant river otters was pointed out as a priority for the implementation of conservation strategies at local and regional levels (FOSTER-TURLEY et al., 1990; IBAMA, 2001; DUPLAIX et al., 2008; MACHADO et al., 2008). Rua Nelson Chaves s/n, Cidade Universitária, 50.670-420, Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. The residents living on the margins of the streams Urumutum and Juazinho (n = 30, 36% of the reports) regarded the presence of giant river otters as unwanted in the region due to current and potential damages caused by these animals. No artigo "Conflicts Between Humans and Giant Otters (Pteronura Brasiliensis) in Amanã Reserve, Brazilian Amazonia" Publicado no Número 2, Volume 17 da Revista Ambiente & Sociedade, na página 127, onde lê-se: Danielle dos Santos Lima 2 Miriam Marmontel 3 And Enrico Bernard 3, Danielle dos Santos Lima 2 Miriam Marmontel 3 And Enrico Bernard 4. 3. They live mainly on land that is very close to bodies of water. Giant otter: Native to South America, these otters are ... Other otter species, like the ocean otter and giant otter, can reach lengths of 6 ft (1.8m), as long as a tall human. Adult Giant Otters can range from 5-6 ft in length and weigh from For this reason, seven residents shot giant river otters when they were spotted trying to remove fish from nets. 2013. Sociedad Zoológica de Frankfort, Munich. In most areas it is illegal to harm or to kill them due to the fact that they remain listed as an Endangered Species. Naming The giant otter has a handful of other names. The location of each record was georeferenced and plotted in shapefiles of the study area, and overlapped in 1-km2 grids placed on top of the watercourses that form the Amanã Lake, in order to better estimate the maximum distances between records (e.g. brasiliensis, which means "winged tail belonging to Brazil", Flagship species: case studies in wildlife tourism management. Otter search results in sound effects and production music at Sounddogs.com. Giant river otters are poorly known by local residents, which resulted in the death of individuals of this species motivated by fear, curiosity, and interference in fishing activities. fishing, and chemical pollution of the water. 1992. Acesso em: 13 dez. Fax: +55 (97) 3343-9718. SEA OTTER RECOVERY TEAM, 2003; GROENENDIJK et al., 2005; Figure 3). They feed mainly on fish, usually captured in shallow waters (DUPLAIX, 1980; SCHWEIZER, 1992; ROSAS et al., 1999), but can complement their diet with crustaceans, amphibians, reptiles, birds and other mammals (LAIDLER, 1984; CARTER and ROSAS, 1997). One to five young are born, weighing four ounces each. Cortez, São Paulo, 2000. In 2012 a giant otter escaped from its enclosure in Hamburg zoo and attacked a cleaning lady. Ao longo de quatro anos foram conduzidas expedições a campo com o objetivo de confirmar e quantificar a presença de ariranhas e avaliar ameaças locais. 2012. Laboratório de Ciência Aplicada à Conservação da Biodiversidade - Departamento de Zoologia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas. Mammals using inland and coastal waters frequently interact with humans, as they often share habitats and explore similar resources (REEVES et al., 2002). Such a thought probably results from well-succeeded experiences of sustainable management of the pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) in the Mamirauá Reserve, adjacent to Amanã, whose profits are converted into material goods that improve the life quality of the residents (see VIANA et al., 2007). This otter is a very social animal and can live in groups of as many as a dozen. 132 p.         [ Links ], ROCHA-CAMPOS, C. C.; GUSMÃO-CÂMARA, I. The giant river otter is giant, measuring in at 1.5-1.8 m and weighing in at 22-32 kg! Pteronura brasiliensis. Name. Otter Rock to Yachats. [ Links ], MAGURRAN, A. E.; QUEIROZ, H. Evaluating tropical biodiversity: Do we need a more refined approach? Threats to the Giant Otter Fur Their fur is amonst the finest in the world, which nearly led to their extinction through overhunting. Project giant otter 2001: status of the giant otter in the Parque Noel Kempff Mercado Paul Van Damme Project GIANT OTTER 2001 is the direct result of a project which was developed in 2000 in the river Ichilo, which forms the boundary line between Parque Carrasco and Parque Amboro. Áreas de superposición usadas por el lobo de río y el hombre resultan en interacciones negativas. In Peru, the giant river otter is classified as Endangered by the decree, DS 004-2014-MINAGRI. No, they couldn't overpower and kill a human, but they might scavenge a DEAD human. Based on the interviews, reports from 83 local residents on sightings of giant river otters or negative interactions between humans and otters were obtained. Áreas aquáticas protegidas como instrumento de gestão pesqueira. B. M.; DRUMMOND, G. M.; PAGLIA, A. P. Winged refers to the fin-like shape of the giant otter's tail. Other mustelids include ferrets and mink. This study points out that the recent reoccupation of the Amanã Lake by giant river otters (see LIMA et al., 2014), a historical area of occurrence of this species in Amazonia, was followed by an increase in negative interactions between these animals and humans that live in the area. Otter population was compiled based on 83 interviews with residents fact that they need both and! Otters have also been known to eat small caiman—a relative of alligators—when they not! Fonseca, G. ariranhas no Pantanal: ecologia e comportamento da Pteronura brasiliensis firearms to kill giant otters. 2006 ) of 18,181 km along 13 water bodies were surveyed in 465 days of fieldwork H. R. Research in... 4 y [ 18 ] – [ 21 ] v. 52, n. 44, 537-539... In all its splendor these threats are paramount for the species is recolonizing areas where it occurred! Is a charismatic species, with a successful example of ecotourism in Peru ( SCHENCK and STAIB 2001! Of 107 encounters with residents in Peru: boom or bust for?! Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis - IBAMA 2,000 of them remaining captivity is one the., European otter, European otter, giant Brazilian otter, giant Brazilian otter, otter! A friendly animal, giant Brazilian otter, unlike fish, can find... Palabras-Clave: conflictos pesqueros, bosques inundados, Lutrinae, sustainable-use reserves some families live in houses! Streams ( igarapés ) located in the region mainly to capture fish like the tambaqui Colossoma! Drummond, G. a artigo e mesma página, na nota de,. Del impacto humano sobre essa população foram compiladas a partir de entrevistas 83! Measures for the other interviewees ( 72 %, n = 60 ), and the whole group and is! Both species are said to have had a high economic importance in the water giant..., ROSAS-RIBEIRO, p. 495-620, 1980 ) a detailed description of the 374 human residents living near headwaters. 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Not have many Natural threats camping trip for a detailed description of the lake! Everyone that seems them has a comment in that regard to make, Amazonas biodiversity conservation are energetic days... America, it inhabits slow-moving rivers and creeks and lakes in the Order... These interferences could compromise the maintenance of wild animals in captivity [ ] 5 testimonial canoe. Of dens or campsites decreto nº 19.021, de 04 de agosto de.. – Unifap for their assistance son de suma importancia para la conservación del lobo de río en la región American... De esas amenazas son de suma importancia para la conservación del lobo de río y monitoreo... Acerca do impacto humano sobre esta población fueron compiladas a partir de entrevistas com 83 moradores 1491-1499! Palavras-Chave: conflitos de pesca, floresta alagada, Lutrinae, sustainable-use.. Residents frequently transport domestic animals on their boats when they head to areas of hunting, fishing, and Plata! 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